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My Regimen of 150 Supplements & Why I Take Them

Written by Joe Cohen, BS | Last updated:

How to Read My Regimen

These are the personal notes of my regimen that I update on a private Google doc. I am releasing this so that people understand why I take what I take. It’s not supposed to be a lay friendly document that you can easily understand. I use lots of abbreviations.

This post is very long, so use the table of contents to scroll.

I’ve formatted my regimen by placing items under the category that is the most significant reason I take a supplement or do an approach. However, it could be only 20% of the reason, since there are usually many more reasons why I follow a healthy behavior or take a given supplement.

But generally, there is always one reason that stands above other reasons for why I take something. Which category each one goes in can change depending on my goals of course, but I did the best job in sticking them in which category makes the most sense for me.

I listed the benefits that I care about.

For every supplement in my regimen, I will also look at SelfDecode to see if it’s recommended based on my genetic predispositions and what clinical trials are available.

I also typically perform what I call a megadose, usually at least 3-5 times, to ensure the effect the supplement is having by itself in isolation and that it is beneficial for me, over different periods of time. I generally don’t recommend people do megadosing experiments, especially not under any doctor’s supervision, but rather I am just showing that I have done them to tease out the effects.

I want to be clear that I am not recommending megadosing experiments to the lay user, and that I am aware that such experiments do contain some risk.

I typically make changes to my regimen every few weeks.

I often cycle some ingredients out as a way to see how I feel longer term without it. Sometimes it could be difficult to pick something up with a megadose vs longer term trials.


*5HTP (50mg)

Why I take it: 

  1. Mood stability (Serotonin)
  2. Sleep (REM)
  3. T3? HRV, Tregs
  4. Social
  5. Impulse control
  6. Lower aggression
  7. Confidence
  8. Emotion recognition


  • Lowers dopamine [1
  • Increases prolactin [2, 3]
  • Behavioral gaze impairments were systematically associated with a downregulation of arousal and motivational states [4]
  • Increase reaction time [4]

What I take: Jo’s Mood Daily – 5HTP is all created the same, so the brand doesn’t matter, but it helps to combine it with vitamin C, B6 and zinc, all of which are in Jo’s Mood Daily. Having adequate magnesium can also help.

Megadosing experiments: I’ve taken 400-500mg around 3 times to see the effect. I don’t recommend taking above 200mg/day as a general rule, and not to stack with other things that increase serotonin, especially SSRIs. Some people who don’t have the right genetic predisposition or have inflammation might not do well with it.

*Methylfolate (B9) (2.5mg)


Why I take it:

Potential negatives: 

  • Prostate and colorectal cancer [5, 6]. However, there’s reason to believe that methylfolate does not increase the risk in the same way [7]. Hower, another MR study found non significantly lower risk for breast, prostate, ovarian and lung cancer 8
  • Adding dietary supplements of folic acid, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 to a vitamin D plus calcium intervention increased biological aging (sex-adjusted odds ratio 5.26 vs vitamin D plus calcium alone) during a 1-year intervention [42].
  • Treatment with folic acid plus vitamin B(12) was associated with increased cancer outcomes and all-cause mortality in patients with ischemic heart disease in Norway, where there is no folic acid fortification of foods 9.
  • Asthma
  • Creatine Kinase increase?
  • Increases mTOR?

What I’ve noticed from megadosing

An improved moved, but also an ability to fast in the morning without getting cognitively impaired or hangry. If I take the RDA of 400mcg, I don’t notice anything.

Taking high amounts of folate can theorertically increase cancer risk, so it’s a supplement to make sure that you need. Hence why I only put 300mcg in Jo’s Mood Daily.

I would consider this a health breakthrough since I am deficient in this even when getting multiple times the RDA.

Megadosing experiments: I’ve taken 5-15mg around 3 times.

*Thiamine (25mg)

Why I take it:

*Allithiamine (50mg) or Sulbutiamine (100mg)

Took 600mg Sulbutiamine in the afternoon – felt very alert and focused. Stimulated digestion – felt hungry a few hours after eating.

What I notice:

I consider Thiamine a game changer. It makes me more resilient in the face of nervous system stressors.

It’s quite calming and relaxing, especially if my nervous system is being overtaxed – even from healthy things like exercise, cold exposure and sauna. 

I notice better mood, more energy, better immunity, and cognitive improvements. 

The mood effects in particular based on my experiments are from GABA, but not on dopamine.

Even when I was getting many time the RDA, it’s not enough if your nervous system is being taxed.

Interesting tidbit: This is an ingredient that came up as me being deficient in. I forgot about it for a while, but then when uploading my lab results to SelfDecode, I remembered. Also, I realized I was deficient when one day I noticed that 5HTP and some other mood supplements were not working to improve my mood without thiamine.

This may be an ingredient that prevents long COVID, based on it’s effects in balancing immunity and improving mitochondrial function. I’ve recommended it to a few people with long covid, with good results.

In addition, this ingredient allows me to be more “extraverted.” If I’m around people too long, I might feel like I need alone time, but if I have sufficient thiamine (and 5htp), that feeling doesn’t occur.


I’ve done around 4 megadosing experiments with around 200mg.

I’ve taken this after breakfast and dinner, but you don’t want to take this close to bed.

*Jo’s Resistant Starch (Butyrate) (20g)


Why I take it:

  1. Food tolerance
  2. Mood (HDACi, GSK3bi, Serotonin, BDNF, CREB, GDNF – increases Tyrosine Hydroxylase, NGF, GABA, Dopamine, Norepinephrine, Endorphins, Antiinflammatory, Antioxidant) – Cerebral Cortex, Hippocampus, Prefrontal Cortex
  3. Cognitive function
  4. Wakefulness (subjective)
  5. Energy (Mitochondria)
  6. Kidney11, GPR109a, HDACi, Urea [12], Indoxyl Sulfate, p-cresol)
  7. Cancer (HDACi)
  8. Gut (HCA2) – increases motility via mucosa effects, good article, Mucin+
  9. Inflammation
  10. Cardiovascular health (LDL- 3.4mg/dl, APOB, TMAO)
  11. Fat loss
  12. Glucose control
  13. Longevity (AMPK)
  14. Muscle
  15. Tregs, CB1, Tyrosine Hydroxylase, Opioids, PPARy
  16. HDACi (Class I, IIa and IV – all except sirtuins)
  17. Ammonia detox13 – very significant
  18. Increase TPH1, Decreases IDO – and kynurenine pathway metabolism of tryptophan
  19. AhR activation – butyrate – directly and indirectly
  20. Butyrate increases Na+ and Cl− absorption in the colon 14
  21. Increases Antimicrobial peptides
  22. Increases Clostridium clusters IV and XIVa & IPA (ChatGPT)

What I’ve noticed from megadosing

I consider Jo’s Resistant Starch to be a health breakthrough.

Most of the effects kick in about 20 hours later, when butyrate production starts to occur in the large intestine.

On its own, it can dramatically normalize and stabilize mood. It has the same mechanism of action as the mood stabilizer valproic acid – both are HDAC inhibitors.

My mood dramatically improves via increases in serotonin, BDNF, GABA and dopamine. Serotonin feels the strongest.

I can tolerate a wider range of foods as a result of inflammation going down. I believe this is through activation of the niacin HCAR2/GPR109A receptor.

There’s clear improvements in cognitive function, wakefulness and energy levels.

My cholesterol levels and glucose tolerance improve. 

In terms of weight composition, my muscles increase and my levels fat levels decrease.

Therefore, I highly recommend this for weight loss and glucose balance.

If I take too much, it can make it difficult to stay asleep, cause discomfort in the large intestine from too much butyrate, cause bloating, and be too intense on the brain – as a result of too much butyrate. Balance is key.

Interesting tidbit: Jo’s Resistant Starch is the best method I found to reducing food sensitivities, and there’s evidence to back up that it creates tolerance to food. There have been other approaches that work to some degree, but this is the best. 

I think this is the single best ingredient for overall health, given how many areas of health it improves. See this image.

My Experiments: I’ve megadosed 150g/day around 10X in the past. Now I take 20g/day and in the afternoon.

What I take: Jo’s Resistant Starch – it’s crucial that you don’t take a resistant starch from potato starch or banana starch as they contain a lot of lectins, which negate many of the positive impacts.

*Rhodiola (200mg, 3% Salidrosides)


Why I take it:

  • Mood (Serotonin, Norepinephrine, NPY, Endorphins, DRD1, DRD2, MAOAi, MAOBi, 5HT1A, Acetylcholine, BDNF, NGF, ATP/energy, NO pathway inhibition, Antiinflammatory, Antioxidant) – HPA axis, Hippocampus, Prefrontal Cortex
  • Wakefuless
  • Immunity
  • Longevity
  • Cognitive (Reaction time) [R]
  • Kidney
  • Exercise/Muscle: Creatine Kinase – Trend – reduction in pain and muscle damage after exercise training, improved skeletal muscle damage, enhanced antioxidant capacity, reduced perceived exertion scores, and improved athletic explosive power 15

What I’ve notice from megadosing

I would consider this a gamechanger based on how it can modify mood in some unique mechanisms.

It is a mood stabilizer, and can blunt a bad mood. The effect is noticeable at normal doses of 500mg. It has a strong serotonin and HPA axis normalizing effect. It is one of my favorite mood boosting supplements, which is why it’s a significant component of Jo’s Mood Daily.

If I take too much, it can interact with other serotonin boosting supplements and the overall effect can be too much.

Interesting tidbit: This is a great supplement when experiencing a trauma or burnout, which it works somewhat uniquely on the HPA axis. It does this in part by increasing heat shock proteins and neuropeptide y [16].

What I take: Jo’s Mood Daily – it’s important to get the right extraction, in particular 3% salidrosides, which is not usually done.

Dosage: I take 400mg daily, and the most I’ve taken is 2000mg as a megadosing experiment. I’ve done around 4 megadosing experiments. I’ve take it on and off since 2011, but I’ve been consistent with it for the past 1.5 years.

I split the dosage between the morning and evening, by taking one Jo’s Mood Daily after breakfast and one after dinner.

*Lithium (2.5mg X2)

Morning & Evening

Why I take it:


  • Kidney injury in high doses

What I’ve notice from megadosing:  

I would consider this a health breakthrough given some of its unique mechanisms of action.

I notice a significant mood improvement, that works different than other supplements. I notice some NMDA blocking properties. I get more spaced out and relaxed, and it has serotonin effects.

I don’t notice anything acute from 5mg on its own, but I will notice my mood is slightly worse if I’m not taking it. Starting from 15-20mg, it becomes more acutely noticeable. 

High pharmaceutical level doses can be toxic to the kidneys and also inhibit the thyroid, but a 5mg dosage does that have those issues.

Interesting tidbit: People who drink water higher in lithium live longer and have lower rates of suicide! Small amounts of lithium are considered a longevity agent.

This pattern has also been observed in people taking high-dose lithium for medical reasons. They generally have lower death rates, including lower rates of death due to cardiovascular disease. Higher doses have negative effects, whereas low doses (in the 5mg range) still have beneficial effects without the negative effects.

Mega dosing experiments: I’ve been taking this since 2013, at a dosage of 5mg/day. The most I’ve megadosed was 30mg and I’ve done that around 4 times.

I split the dosage between the morning and evening, by taking one Jo’s Mood Daily after breakfast and one after dinner.

What I take: Jo’s Mood Daily 

*Green Tea Extract/EGCG (400mg)


Why I take it:

Megadosing experiments: I’ve done around 4 experiments with dosages ranging 1200-1600mg. I notice improved mood and cognitive function.

It’s one of my top mood boosters, but if not for that, I would still take it for general health reasons.

EGCG has a very wide range of action, and is responsible for many of the health benefits of tea.

I first took this in 2011, but have been taking this on and off for a number of years. I’ve been consistent with this when I started to take my mood more seriously.

Dosage: I take 400mg/day of green tea extract, 50% of which is EGCG. I take it at night after dinner because it can help with sleep.

What I take: Green Tea Extract, I mainly look for a caffeine free extract from a reliable brand with 50% EGCG.


*Curcumin (BCM95 – 500mg, Theracrucumin – 30mg, Longvida 500mg)

Morning & Evening

Why I take it:

Megadosing experiments: This is one of the few supplements that can singlehandedly make my mood stable.

How long I’ve taken it: This has been the supplement that I’ve been most consistent with over the years, as I’ve started taking it consistently since 2011.

What I take: Longvida, Theracurcumin, BCM-95 – favorite being longvida.

Dosage: 1g daily

*Zinc (5mg)


Why I take it:

  • Mood (Reducing glutamate, BDNF, NMDA antagonism, GSK3Bi)
  • Immunity & Infections, Common Cold
  • Cardiovascular (LDL)
  • Cognitive function (Attention, Reasoning)
  • Glucose balance
  • Skin health (Anti-Malassezia)
  • Inflammation (STAT3)
  • Gut health (IBS, Mucin+)
  • Energy/Physical performance
  • Hormones: Testosterone, SHBG
  • Thyroid (T3 (+))
  • Vision
  • Bone health
  • Hair (Lower levels in MPB)
  • Kidney health
  • Tinnitus
  • Oral health/Gums
  • Sleep quality and duration
  • TregsCritical
  • Ammonia
  • Homocysteine
  • All cause mortality (lower from higher dietary intake)

Creatine Kinase (inverse correlation)can increase CK with supplementation and no HIIT but decreases with HIIT


Megadosing experiments: The first time I took it, I had a massive improvement in my mood, and it was clear that I was quite deficient in this important mineral.

Finding out that I was deficient in zinc was a health breakthrough, as it solved a lot of problems.

Interesting tidbit: I used to be very deficient in zinc when I started taking it in 2013, and have been taking it ever since. My levels have since then been on the higher end typically, which is why I cut back on my dosage from 30mg/day to 10mg, which is found in Jo’s Mood Daily.

However, I only checked my blood levels of zinc in 2018. At this point I didn’t think I was deficient in zinc anymore because I ate a mostly meat based diet, which is rich in zinc.

To my surprise, my zinc levels still fell below the normal range. It’s clear that there’s a strong genetic component that requires me to get significantly more zinc than the RDA, as I was already getting at least 2X the RDA.

You can see that I started to take 30mg/day of zinc after my blood test and it went into the normal range, while going too high later. Based on these tests, I’ve adjusted my zinc dosage to get it in the optimal range. The last reading was with 10mg/day in Jo’s Mood Daily.

According to my genetics, I have a higher need for zinc, which makes sense given that I was deficient in zinc even when ate a lot of meat.

The benefits to mood are not as great for me as some of the others, but it does have many other effects on the body.

Zinc needs to be balanced with copper, and you should check your zinc levels to see where it’s at. Higher levels of zinc can increase risk of cardiovascular disease [17].

What I take: Jo’s Mood Daily

Dosage: I recently went down to 5mg from 10mg daily to get my lab readings down.

*B12 (200mcg)


Why I take it:

Megadosing experiments

I noticed improved mood and energy at higher dosages (1 capsule – 500mcg).

Potential negatives:

  • Treatment with folic acid plus vitamin B(12) was associated with increased cancer outcomes and all-cause mortality in patients with ischemic heart disease in Norway, where there is no folic acid fortification of foods 9.
  • Lung and Colorectal cancer risk – MR [18, 6
  • Prostate cancer – MR [19, 20].
  • BMD – MR
  • IBD – MR
  • Adding dietary supplements of folic acid, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 to a vitamin D plus calcium intervention increased biological aging (sex-adjusted odds ratio 5.26 vs vitamin D plus calcium alone) during a 1-year intervention [42].

Dosage: 100mcg/day

*B6: Pyridoxine (10mg P5P, 25mg Pyridoxine)

Potential Negatives:

  • Stimulates CD8+ T Cells, T Effector cells
  • Adding dietary supplements of folic acid, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 to a vitamin D plus calcium intervention increased biological aging (sex-adjusted odds ratio 5.26 vs vitamin D plus calcium alone) during a 1-year intervention [42].


Took 100mg P5P at 3:15 PM with afternoon shake. Felt a strong cognitive sensation. At first, improved focus, cognition and mood. 100mg is too much though. Had random light pains. Made me super sleepy and then spaced out 35 min later. Fatigue continued until 6:30PM. Had a lot of sleep and was quite alert before taking it.

*Myoinositol (2g)

Why I take it:

  1. Mood (Serotonin, Dopamine, IP3/DAG, 5HT2A)
  2. Sleep
  3. Cardiovascular (LDL – meta, 50mg/dl)
  4. Glucose tolerance
  5. Mitochondria
  6. Longevity
  7. Kidney
  8. Promotes glucose uptake into muscle

Megadosing experiments: The benefits to mood are not as great for me as some of the others, which is why I consider this a tier 2 mood supplement for me.

*Bacopa/Bacognize (60mg – 12% Bacopa Glycosides)


  • Activity at serotonin (5HT-1a) receptor
  • Mood (Serotonin, CREB, cAMP, BDNF, Acetylcholine, Norepinephrine, Dopamine production/transport, MAOAi, 5HT1A, 5HT2C, IP3, Antioxidant)
  • Cognition (Reaction time, Processing speed, Memory, Attention, Working Memory
  • Hair
  • Longevity
  • Kidney health
  • Thyroid (T4+T3 – mice)

*Bacopa/Ebelin (100mg – 10% Ebelin) – Cycle


*Apigenin (50mg)

  • Mood (Dopamine D2 receptor, MAOAi, MAOBi – amygdala & hypothalamus)
  • Sleep (GABA – increases glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67) – works over long term)
  • Cognitive (allosterically potentiating α7 nAChR)
  • Gut microbial diversity
  • Kidney (Fibrosis, Doxorubicin, Hyperglycemia, Diabetes, Methotrexate, Lowers uric acid, I/R)
  • StAR, NAD+ (block CD38), SIRT3, HRV?, Tregs, mTORi, blood thinner, Prolactin (-)

What I notice:

  • Mood
  • Cognitive function
  • More social

Energy production (mitochondria)

*Niacin (Nicotinic acid) (1000mg)


300mg Niacin (Instant Release PBF) – 500mg breakfast, 50mg Niacin- evening, 50mg in B complex

Used in more reactions (>470) than any other vitamin-derived molecule.

  1. Mitochondria/Energy (NAD+)
  2. Cardiovascular (APOB, LDL, hsCRP, LP(a)- 20%, Apoa1, LDL particle size, Platelets, Decreases Hemoglobin, HDL, Blood thinner)  21% at 2500mg- 500mg Nicotinic Acid changed APOB, LDL HDL1000mg increased LP(a)…Markers improved dose dependently up to 2500mg. Decreases in LDL cholesterol were 3% at 500 mg, 9% at 1,000 mg, 14% at 1,500 mg, 17% at 2,000 mg, 22% at 2,500 mg, and 21% at 3,000 mg
  3. Gut21, Food tolerance (GPR109a/HCA2), Lower levels in feces of IBD…counteracts IBS biochemistry
  4. Skin (UV protection, Moisturizing, Removes waste) – Niacinamide is better
  5. Immunity/Infection (Antifungal, Anti-Malassezia, COVID?)
  6. Mood (Striatal Dopamine/Tyrosine Hydroxylase, Norepinephrine, Serotonin)
  7. Cognitive (Memory, Wakeful, Attention, Executive function, Thinking speed), Alzheimer’s22, Parkinson’s
  8. Kidney (GFR, Phosphorouslow dose [23], Proteinuria, Uric acid, FGF23, Urination, Creatinine – not signif) Niacinamide/niacin inhibits absorption in the gut…extended-release niacin causes a sustained reduction in serum phosphorus concentrationsreduces phosphorus, FGF23, and PTH
  9. Antioxidant (GSH/Glutathione, GGT, Bilirubin)
  10. Muscle – in myopathy
  11. Cancer
  12. Hair: Fullness
  13. Bells Palsy In 74 cases, 100‒250 mg niacin, all but one case resulted in good facial nerve response within 2‒4 weeks
  14. Reduces side effects from caffeine
  15. Deficiency increases amylase – Secretion of amylase and trypsinogen was increased
  16. Tregs, mTORi, Autophagy, PPARs – PPARa, PPARd, PPARgamma, LXR
  17. Carnitine uptake and biosynthesis
  18. Sleep
  19. Helps recycle vitamin K
  20. Ulcers
  21. Creates methyl group for methylfolate
  22. Activates tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase – converts tryp to kyn
  23. Bad breath? Restless legs? – case report…Nausea? – pellagra, White hair?


  • Need to take B6 with it
  • TMG/Methyldonors
  • Leucine – AMPK/SIRT1
  • Phosphorous – to create NAD
  • Niacin and GABA increases the amount of GABA that crosses the blood–brain barrier.
  • Tryptophan, glutamine, thiamin, ascorbate, riboflavin, and pyridoxal phosphate are required for various aspects of formation and interconversion of NAD[P]


What I noticed:

  • Food sensitivities went down
  • Tinea went away after this noticeably (checked)
  • HDL went up noticeably (checked)
  • Phosphorous went down noticeably (checked)
  • Lipase went down noticeably (checked)
  • Proton leak test (fixed)
  • Bells palsy
  • Caffeine tolerance went up
  • Can operate with less sleep
  • Wakefulness
  • Attention
  • Information processing
  • Mood enhancements
  • Thinking speed
  • Immunity – not worn out from extended period of sports
  • Gut improvements
  • More serious & analytical
  • Nausea
  • More monogamous
  • Lower sex drive, but no harm to function
  • Kidney improvements?
  • LDL
  • GGT – didn’t fix

*Ergothioneine (5mg)


*Shilajit (60% Fulvic Acid)/Colloidal Minerals (250mg) 


  • Mitochondria/Energy
  • Mood (Dopamine/D2),
  • Testosterone, SHBG
  • Cardiovascular (LDL-animals)
  • Energy


Reduces risk of

  • Hypertension (MR)
  • Type 2 diabetes, diabetic complications (MR)
  • Coronary atherosclerotic outcomes (MR)
  • Gout (MR)

*Humic Shale (5g)


  • Energy


  • Carboxlyic acids (mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxycarboxylic acids, dicarboxylic acids)
  • Linear alcohols
  • Phenolic acids
  • Terpenoids

*Biotin (4mg)



Lowers REM & deep sleep, prolongs sleep time, lowers HRV, slows thinking, more filler words, keyword mistakes, irritability, better metabolism of food, lower food sensitivities?

We included studies employing high-dose biotin or “MD1003” administered orally for at least 300 mg/day and given for at least three months. Out of 662 pooled patients in the HDB group, 31 patients (4.7%) were found to have laboratory test interference compared to zero event in the pooled placebo group [high COE] [25].

10 ng/mL (the lowest known interference threshold) 26

Biotin is rapidly absorbed and reaches peak serum concentration 1-2 hours after ingestion. Doses of about 10 mg can lead to concentrations of 55-140 ng/ml.

Doses under 2,500 µg/day make up the majority of biotin sales, and such dosages have no risk for immunoassay interference.

Participants taking a low dose (< 1,000 mcg) had half-life clearance rates of approximately two to three hours. Users of high dose (10,000 mcg) supplements experienced a half-life of up to nearly 19 hours.

*Emoxypine (125mg)

Morning – half life 2-2.5 hrs


  • Energy (Mitochondria – enhances the flow of electrons between MEC I and MEC II, as well as directly interacting with the respiratory chain to raise the sensitivity of the process to malonate)
  • Powerful Antioxidant (Catalase, GPx, Iron chelating)
  • Mood (Dopamine, Serotonin, MAOAi, MAOBi, NMDAi, GABA – increases binding)
  • Cognitive (PDEi, Acetylcholine – increases binding)
  • Cardiovascular (Coronary flow, lipid bilayer, platelet aggregation/blood clotting inhibitor)
  • Kidney
  • Liver (Decreases ALT & AST)
  • Glucose (Insulin potentiation, anti glucocorticoid, facilitate pyruvate oxidation)


Took 1 pill on an empty stomach (125mg) in the morning at 9:30AM. Lasts acutely 3 hours.

  • Cognitive function improvement (strong effect on alert/attention/focus, working memory).
  • Helped verbal fluency, decreased ums
  • Helped cognitive function despite fasting
  • Improved wakefulness, mood and motivation
  • Improved energy levels
  • Improved confidence
  • Seems like it could be good for socialization
  • Made voice deeper?
  • Helped mood without light exposure – mouse study confirms

*Gynostemma/Jiagolan (250mg – 12x concentration)


  • Longevity
  • Mitochondria/Energy (Stamina, Oxygen increase?)
  • CVD (LDL -22mg/dL, TMAO)
  • Immunity
  • Glucose –  In vitro, Gynostemma pentaphyllum inhibited alpha-glucosidase activity (50% inhibition at 42.8), which compared to acarbose (50% at 53.9 microg/mL). 27
  • Cognitive (Focus/Attention)
  • Muscle: Creatine Kinase, Lactate – mice

*NADH (20mg)


*PQQ (20mg)

Morning – 3-5 hrs

*NMN or NR (175mg)


  • Muscle function and exercise performance
  • NAD+
  • Kidney
  • No change in LDL


*Eleuthero/Siberian Ginseng (500mg 2% Eleutherosides)


  • Energy/Mitochondria/ Reduce fatigue
  • Cardiovascular (HRV, LDL – 17mg/dL, blood pressure)
  • Sleep
  • Cognitive (Memory, BDNF)
  • Infection/Immunity
  • Mood
  • Ergogenic (VO2 max, endurance time, max heart rate)
  • Bone
  • Glucose
  • Kidney?


Seems to be have more endurance – did 100 continuous pushups

Seems to have made me require less sleep?

Took 4 caps of ND Eleuthero at 2:40pm. Felt a cognitive sensation but took it with MitoQ

Took 4 caps of ND Eleuthero at 10AM with an empty stomach. Felt a very good cognitive, wakeful, and alertness promoting effect. Got 5.5 hrs of sleep with only 34 min of REM. Felt awake the whole day. Worked very well.

*Carnitine (200-700mg)

Morning – 1.1 hrs for Proprionyl Carnitine


Cognitive function/Motivation/Social

*Pregnenolone (25-50mg)


  1. Motivation (Dopamine), Locomotor (7α-hydroxypregnenolone)
  2. Libido
  3. Cognitive function (Working Memory, Verbal Fluency, Myelin, Estrogen) 
  4. Wakefulness (subjective)
  5. Striatal dopamine, Nucleus accumbens, DRD2, Sigma receptor, TRPM1, TRPM3, GABA antagonist, NMDA+

Increases Estradiol:

Lowers LP(a)

*Oroxylin A (200mg Sabroxy – 20mg Oroxylin)

Morning – 39min half life

Sabroxy was found to substantially promote focus and motivation during trials. When compared to other extracts with similar mechanisms, Sabroxy was deemed the most effective for promoting focus and supporting motivation! Data from these studies concluded Sabroxy outperformed various other compounds by a wide margin! This leads scientists and researchers to believe the high concentration of Oroxylin A is responsible for these benefits. Findings from several Oroxylin A studies have found that these interactions also augment NMDA signaling which ultimately helps promote neurogenesis, another element of cognitive foundation.

Subjective: improves mood, motivation, creativity, attention and cognitive function. Reduced foot rocking.

*Ashwagandha (60mg – 10% Withanolides)

1 hr half life – withanolides

Why I take it:

Megadosing experiments

Notice improvement in libido.

The benefits to mood are not as great for me as some of the others, which is why I consider this a tier 2 mood supplement for me.

Potential negatives:

  • Cortisol Suppression
  • Immune stimulation

What I take: Jo’s Mood Daily

Dosage: 120mg in Jo’s Mood Daily. Sometimes, I take more Ashwagandha on its own.

When I take it:

Regimen stability: Very stable

*Chocamine/Cocoa (200mg) (Theobromine, Polyphenols) 


  1. CVD (LDL, HDL
  2. Cognitive (Working memory, Reaction time)
  3. Mood (Dopamine)
  4. Libido (Testosterone)
  5. Longevity
  6. Motivation
  7. Wakefulness (subjective)
  8. Kidney, Kidney oxygenation

*Avena Sativa (430mg) 



Took 4 pills or 1700mg upon awakening on an empty stomach – improved all cognitive areas studied. Noticed blood flow improvement, to peripheral organs, hands and feet became warm, libido improvement. Felt similar to ashwagandha, icariin and zembrin. Feels relaxing after some hours. Good for social. Notice PDE4i. Less picky with women. Effects last for a long time. 


  • Terpenes, including genus-specific triterpene saponin “avenacins”
  • Phenolic acids
  • Polyphenols, including flavonoids and avenanthramides
  • Phenolic amides

*Ecklonia Cava (Phlorotannins)

Morning/Evening – half life 3-6.6 hrs (dieckol)


Blocks 5HT1A and DRD1 – blocking 5HT1A helps libido

What I notice:

Took 3 pills of swanson, 53mg 80:1 concentrated extract, 50% polyphenols (including phlorotannins). 

  • Cognitive enhancement effects – particularly alertness
  • Mood boosting effects, that seem to improve over time
  • Blood circulation and blood thinning
  • Feels like a very strong antioxidant effect. 
  • Effects get better over time and lasts 4+ hours. 
  • Doesn’t induce tiredness in the daytime – if anything it induces wakefulness. 
  • It made me tired when I took it at night, but awake in the morning. 
  • Some muscle twitches.

*L-theanine (50mg)


*American Ginseng (500mg) 


  1. Cognitive function (Reaction time, Working memory, Focus/Attention, ACh+)
  2. Cardiovascular (Heart Rate)
  3. Immunity (Flu – shortens flu by 6 days when taken preventatively)
  4. Muscle damage: Creatine Kinase
  5. Libido (Bard)
  6. Energy/Fatigue (Bard)
  7. Glucose (post meal glucose)
  8. Increases Akkermansia and Lactobacillus

*Uridine Monophosphate (300mg)


Synergy: DHA, Alpha-GPC, Vit D

Took (1800mg UMP) capsules on an empty stomach while sleep deprived:

Very slight inflammation, evidenced by random slight pains

I think it improved my sleep when taken daily.

Uridine was more abundant in tissues or cells with higher regenerative potential. Uridine decreased in the blood plasma of aged individuals. A single-dose injection of uridine in mice is sufficient to make the blood uridine concentration reach the concentration required to rejuvenate stem cells from aged adults in cell culture. Uridine supplementation rejuvenated senescent stem cells, promoted the regeneration and repair of multiple tissues, and improved the fitness of aged mice. Orally administered uridine (20 mg/kg/day) daily for two months in aged mice (22 months old), facilitated muscle tissue regeneration, reduced fibrotic or erosion area, decreased proinflammatory cytokine levels, improved physical performance, as indicated by their enhanced grip strength and exercise endurance.

Potential Negatives:

*Lion’s Mane (8:1)


  • Cognitive function (NGF, Kappa opioid receptor agonist)
  • Mood
  • Cardiovascular
  • Immunity
  • Gut
  • Cancer?


Took 2 capsules of 8:1 Lion’s Mane at night and felt a significant cognitive and mood boosting effect. It made me more alert at night and less likely to fall asleep. Stronger and better effect than other Lion’s Mane products.

Internet reviews: “improves memory, creativity and sleep (very deep sleep with vivid dreams) – gives boost of energy + better focus – boosts confidence, improves speech (easier to gather your thoughts and find the right words when speaking) – improves mood and curiosity….Reaction time, processing speed, and recall have all been increased….I’ve noticed that my working memory has very much improved, and my long-term memory has as well. This may be confirmation bias, but I have noticed that I am picking up things a lot faster, as well… I take one in the morning to help me stay focused…I’m noticing when I type, my words per minute have improved. It was very noticeable within a few days. I also solve more complex formulas on spreadsheets and cross-spreadsheet calculations have become simpler for me to accomplish. I have to get up and move around more frequently when taking these 8:1’s”

*Pyroglutamate (500mg) – do more mega dosing experiments



*Fish Oil/Omega 3 (EPA/DHA) (3g)

Morning & Evening

Why I take it:

LDL can help with HRV and serotonin/mood

The primary means by which omega-3 fatty acids positively impact skeletal muscle mass is via incorporation of EPA and DHA into membrane phospholipids of the sarcolemma and intracellular organelles. Enrichment of EPA and DHA in these membrane phospholipids is linked to enhanced rates of muscle protein synthesis, decreased expression of factors that regulate muscle protein breakdown, and improved mitochondrial respiration kinetics. 30

What I notice: Improvements in mood, HRV, and cognitive function.

Something to note: I increased my dosage after I took a test to measure my omega-6 to omega-3 ratio. The ratio should be under 3 to 1, whereas mine was slightly over (3.1).

How long I’ve taken it: 15 years

The first time I tried it: Since childhood, my mother used to give us cod liver oil every so often.

What I take: Which fish oil you use is actually important. You want to make sure that it’s not oxidized, and therefore it should contain ingredients to prevent that. In addition, I like fish oil’s with a high concentration of DHA and EPA.

Dosage: 2g, 700mg EPA, 500mg DHA. I recently upped my dosage from 1g to 2g after testing my omega 6 to omega 3 ratio.

The most I’ve megadosed was 8g and did a handful of these megadosing experiments.

When I megadose, I notice that my heart rate slows down considerably and I feel calmer. I’ve once consumed so much cod liver that my platelets went down and I bruised easily. Taking too fish oil much can thin the blood too much.

Regimen stability: Very stable

*Anthocyanins/Proanthocyanidins (500mg)


There’s quite a few polyphenols, and they have similar beneficial and broad effects in the body.

In supplement form, polyphenols will often come from blueberries, bilberry, grapeseed, eyebright or pinebark extracts.


  • Phenolic – caffeic acid (Green Coffee Extract)
  • Anthocyanidins/Anthocyanins (Blueberry, Bliberry)
  • Lignan – Sesame (LEF Omega 3)
  • Isoflavanoids (Soy extract)
  • Flavanols (Quercetin, Fisetin)
  • Flavone (Luteolin, Apigenin)
  • Flavanones (Citrus flavanoids, Bergamot – hesperitin, naringenin)
  • Flavans  (Tea/EGCG/Theaflavins, Chocolate)

Why I take it:

What I notice: Improvements in mood and cognitive function.

Something to note: Many studies show that diets high in polyphenols significantly reduce the risk of dying. If you don’t eat a lot of colorful vegetables and fruits, then taking polyphenol supplements is likely a good idea.

How long I’ve taken it: 2013

What I take: 1, 2, 3

I like to diversify my polyphenol sources from supplement form, so I like to take multiple supplements with a mix of polyphenols, that include:

Dosage: ±100mg of polyphenols

The most I’ve megadosed was around 4X the normal dosage or 400mg. I’ve done such experiments around 4 times.

I’ve noticed from megadosing stronger beneficial cognitive and mood effects, as well as vasodilation.

Regimen stability: Very stable, although blueberry and eyebright are relatively new supplements for me. Some kind of purplish polyphenol is a must long-term.

I am still playing around with how much I take and how often. Currently, there are 3 supplements in my regimen, and I take one pill of bilberry/grapeseed extract in the morning and one pill of blueberry or eyebright or pine bark extract or another polyphenol at night.

*Sunflower Lecithin (3g X2)

  • Cognitive
  • Cardio: LDL – 56% reduction – by increasing biliary secretion…HMG-CoA reductase+, cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase+ and decreasing the microsomal ACAT activity….Promotes HDL synthesis
  • Liver

Phosphatidylserine (300mg)

  1. Mood
  2. Cognitive function (ADHD, Thinking speed, Memory, Attention, Reasoning, Myelin, Alzheimer’s)
  3. CVD?
  4. Sleep?
  5. HRV?

No change in CK

CDP Choline/Phosphatidylcholine/Alpha GPC (300mg)


  1. Cognitive (Myelin, Attention, Alzheimer’s)
  2. Mood (Dopamine –CDP, Norepinephrine –CDP, Acetylcholine), social, Dopamine Reuptake inhibitor, Tyrosine Hydroxylase inducer, Striatal dopaminehigh doses may be antagonistic to dopaminemassively increases potassium induced dopamine)
  3. Kidney (eGFR
  4. Sleep (REM)
  5. Cardiovascular? (Cholesterol, LDL?, to prevent deficiency)
  6. Muscle: Creatine Kinase increases in deficiency

*Potassium – (as Butyrate)

Morning & Afternoon

  1. Insufficient intake & Benefits of butyrate
  2. Cardiovascular (Blood pressure)
  3. Kidney
  4. Bone
  5. Muscle: Creatine Kinase, LDH, myopathy – in deficiency
  6. Sleep – efficiency (REM) & maintenance
  7. Cognition
  8. Mood
  9. Tregs

*Flax Oil (Alpha Linolenic Acid, Lignans) (1g)


*Bergamot/Citrus Bioflavanoids/Nobiletin (500mg)


Neoeriocitrin, naringin, neohesperidin, melitidin, and bruteridin

  • Cardiovascular (LDL was reduced by 23% – meta)


  • Thins the blood

*Ubiquinol/CoQ10 (100mg X2)

Morning & Evening 

There is evidence that the ratio of CoQ10 to LDL-cholesterol may be more important in the prevention of atherosclerosis than is the HDL:LDL cholesterol ratio.19 The role of CoQ10 in protecting LDL-cholesterol from oxidative damage has been described…A meta-analysis reported supplementation with CoQ10 resulted in significant improvement in arterial endothelial function in patients with and without cardiovascular disease. [34]

No lifespan change in rats or mice [35].

*MitoQ (5mg)


Took 40mg at 12PM with morning shake without food, felt very strong cognitive sensation about 2:30PM that lasted a few hours.

*Magnesium (200mg X2)

Morning & Evening 


*Copper (Liver + Colloidal minerals + Nutritional Yeast + Organ Meat)

  1. Cardiovascular: CAD-MR, IHD-MR, Blood pressure mediating – MR , LDL, APOB, PAI1i, Blood pressure, oxLDL, AGEs)
  2. Mitochondria/Energy
  3. Thyroid (T4, T3)
  4. Gut (IBS – MR), lowers risk for GI infection – MR
  5. Antimicrobial/Antifungal
  6. Bone
  7. Mood (Bipolar – MR)
  8. Cognitive (Alzheimer’s – MR)
  9. Gray hair (Tyrosinase is a copper-containing enzyme present in plant and animal tissues that catalyzes the production of melanin and other pigments from tyrosine by oxidation)
  10. Skin (DHTi, Collagen)
  11. Immunity
  12. Glucose tolerance
  13. Prostate & Brain cancer – MR
  14. Chelated by polyphenols
  15. Lowers WBCs – MR

Stimulates Amylase release


Average copper content of fruits and vegetables declined by 81% between the years 1940 and 2000 .85 The reductions of copper in meat, cheese and other dairy products are also substantial (−55%, −91% and −97%, respectively).86 

*Spirulina (3g)

  1. Cardiovascular (3g – LDL – 41 or 33 – 10% from 1g/day…HDL – 6, 45% in 4g/day, VLDL – 8, Blood pressure – 7, Triglycerides – 39 – meta)
  2. Glucose – fasting 5mg/dl – meta
  3. Muscle: Creatine Kinase
  4. Immune booster: CD4, NK Cells, Antibodies – effective against a variety of Flu strains in animals
  5. Kidney
  6. Gut protective
  7. Libido – subjective effect, via Nitric Oxide
  8. Heavy metal removal
  9. Antioxidant
  10. Antiinflammatory
  11. Cancer?

*Thyroid Hormones/Thyroid Glandular (40mg)

High doses of both 3,5-diiodo-l-thyronine and T3 dramatically reduced circulating total and very low-density lipoprotein/LDL cholesterol (∼70%).

Low levels of thyroid hormone shift the system towards a hypocoagulable and hyperfibrinolytic state, whereas high levels of thyroid hormone lead to more coagulation and less fibrinolysis. 38


*Ezetimibe (10mg)

22 hr half life

  • LDL (20% reduction in LDL)
  • APOB

*Potassium (as Citrate & Bicarbonate) 

*Glucomannan (1g X2)

  • 3g – LDL 16mg/dl – meta analysis…Studies have demonstrated that glucomannan can help lower LDL cholesterol levels by binding to bile acids and promoting their excretion. Like other soluble fibers, glucomannan can bind to bile acids in the digestive system and help reduce LDL cholesterol levels. However, its exceptional viscosity may make it even more effective at lowering cholesterol compared to some other soluble fibers.
  • Skin (UV)
  • Weight
  • Blood sugar (7.5mg/dl decrease)
  • Increased lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria
  • Emulsifier/Thickener – very significant


  • Reduces thyroid hormones?

*Psyllium Husk (2g X2) 

Well tolerated (ChatGPT). “It is less likely to cause gas and bloating compared to other fiber supplements”.

“Psyllium is particularly effective at binding bile acids and lowering LDL cholesterol levels.”

  • Cardiovascular (APOB, LDL (7% -5g) – meta) “One of the most effective soluble fibers for binding bile acids is psyllium.”…The soluble fiber in psyllium husk binds to bile acids in the digestive system, which helps lower LDL cholesterol levels. The mucilage content may enhance this effect by forming a thick gel that interferes with cholesterol and fat absorption.
  • Kidneys (Urate, Urea, Indoxyl sulfate, Heavy metals)
  • Gut (IBS)

Psyllium husk contains 34 percent insoluble fiber and 66 percent soluble fiber

*Carob (10g) 

  • Cardiovascular (APOB, LDL particle size, LDL) -10.5% reduction in LDL w/ 15g – The insoluble fraction of carob fiber includes cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, and it accounts for up to 70% of total carob fiber [31]. Soluble dietary fiber is present in small amounts (maximum 10 g × 100 g−1 carob fiber) [31].

*Molybdenum (50mcg)

  • Help glutathione conversion
  • Cardiovascular (TMAO) – lower risk from higher urinary molybdenum, competes with tungsten 
  • Glucose
  • Teeth
  • NAC conversion


  • Increases uric acid via xanthine oxidase
  • Increases muscle damage via xanthine oxidase

*Lycopene (15mg)

Evening – could also be morning. Use blood tests to see what it improves.

  1. Cardiovascular (APOB, LDL (PCSK9i+HMGRi), TMAO, CRP) (10% reduction in LDL -20mg, meta, at 25mg) – lower CVD and overall mortality
  2. Cancer
  3. Skin (UV Protection)
  4. Kidney – CKD – lowered all cause mortality, AhRi, Ribose, Steroids, Mercury, I/R, AKI (Cyclosporine, Cisplatin, Isoniazid+Rifampicin), HFD, 
  5. Muscle: Creatine Kinase, LDH
  6. Tregs

Lower all cause mortality

*Xanthigen/Wakame/Fucoxanthin Extract

Morning or Evening

  • Cognitive (reaction times, reasoning, learning, executive control, attention shifting (cognitive flexibility), and impulsiveness) + Guarana
  • Cardiovascular (LDLHmg-coai, Bile+, CPT1+, PPARa+, Weight, Blood Pressure, Inflammation, PON1 (PA)) – Seaweed consumption inversely related to CVD 39
  • Cancer (Fucoxanthin)
  • Weight – Induces UCP1
  • Glucose
  • Improves circulation (noticable)
  • Antimicrobial (bacterial, fungal, viral), antioxidant, antiinflammatory
  • Skin
  • Energy/Mitochondria (increases cytochrome c oxidase) – prevents muscle loss
  • Gut – FX can increase the growth of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus/Lactococcus, Enterococcaceae, Bacteroidetes, Bifidobacteriaceae, Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroidaes_S24-7_group, anaerotruncus, Blautia obeum, Enterococcus durans, Streptococcus, Romboutsia, Lactobacillus equicursoris, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactococcus lactis, and Lactococcus raffinolactis. Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Bacteroidaes_S24-7_group

Standardized to ≥ 0.425% fucoxanthin (FX) and ≥ 35% punicic acid (PA). Fucoxanthin has no toxicity level.

No toxic effects at 1000mg/kg or any dose


Noticed warming of my body, mainly knees. Wakefulness. Improved circulation.

*Lutein (10mg) & Zeaxanthin (2mg)

*Borage Oil (GLA) (1g)


No change in mortality from higher serum levels [41]

Took 7g at around 2PM. Has a relaxing effect, suitable to night stack. Had to take a nap despite taking stimulants.

Took 3g 20 min before bed in addition to the 1g in my night stack and it kept me up longer. Had a wakeful promoting effect. Felt eyes more wet, cognition improved. A bit more wakeful. No blood thinning effect. Took 1.5 hrs to go to sleep with it even though I was tired initially.

Took 4g at around 12:30PM with 6 hrs of sleep in the previous night, and didn’t find that it caused me to get tired as it did previously.

*Tocotrienols – (50mg) – every other day



  • High serum vitamin E


Once every 2 months.

PCSK9 inhibitors reduced cholesterol (29–37%), non-HDL-cholesterol (36–50%) and apoB (40–52%). Can decrease your LDL cholesterol by up to 70%. This agent on top of statin therapy reduced LDL-C levels by ~65% at day 14 compared with baseline levels.

Kidney Health

Kidney disease caused by…Lower: Urine pH, T3, bicarbonate, bilirubin, HDL/Apoa1….Higher: Salt, urate, urea, LP(a), Homocysteine, TMAO, Galectin-3, p-cresyl sulfate, indoxyl sulfate…..Testosterone, DHEA, Excess IGF1good in short term, TSH, Seleniumincreases GFR, Copper. Lower T and DHEA is also not good.

Supplements bad for kidneys –  Selenium, Copper, Chromium, Vitamin C, Cranberry, Licorice, Cat’s Claw

Glycine, L-glutamine, L-histidine (+arginine, glutamate, aspartate) taken orally by normal adults or patients with renal failure increase glomerular filtration rate (GFR) [43].

Myo-inositol, betaine, and taurine have been identified as major osmolytes in the renal medulla [4345].

Low intake of tyrosine, tryptophan, phenylalanine good for mice with CKD.

*Cordyceps (10:1 250mg, 0.3% Cordycepin) – Cycle


Took 3 capsules of 10:1 Cordyceps militaris (250mg each) at 9:30AM on an empty stomach, with 6 hrs 20 min of sleep. Only at 11:30AM I started to feel more significant cognitive effects, only after I ate food. Focus, alertness, calm, mood enhancement, motivated, general cognitive enhancement, different than other cognitive enhancers. Recovered more quickly from yesterday (maybe). No significant blood thinning. Felt that perhaps it helped with lungs (maybe). More social on it (maybe). Counteracted sleep deprivation related fatigue. Lasted for many hours.

Cordyceps 10:1 mushroom extract shows more potency in demonstrating cognitive effects than other Cordyceps benefits. Reviewers say it helps with exercise.

*Astragalus (Astragaloside IV – 50mg)


*Acacia Fiber/Gum Arabic (2g X2)

Well tolerated (ChatGPT). “It is less likely to cause gas and bloating compared to other fiber supplements”.

Tried 20g/day no side effects


*Activated Charcoal (8g) (2 hrs after afternoon shake)

It is generally recommended to take activated charcoal at least 2 hours before or 2 hours after taking any medication.

Adsorbs Tannins, Hormones, Iodine, Uric acid, Urea, 

Activated carbon can be used as a substrate for the application of various chemicals to improve the adsorptive capacity for some inorganic (and problematic organic) compounds such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), formaldehyde (HCOH), mercury (Hg) and radioactive iodine-131(131I).

Activated carbon does not bind well to certain chemicals, including alcohols, diols, strong acids and bases, metals and most inorganics, such as lithium, sodium, iron, lead, arsenic, fluorine, and boric acid.

Active carbon is most effective against compounds that hold a high molecular weight and low solubility due to activated carbon having a high molecular weight as well.

See list

Negatives: adsorbs iodine

*Modified Citrus Pectin (2g X2) 

Morning and Evening

*Chlorella (Spermidine) (3g)

  1. Detoxification: heavy metals
  2. Immune system support: NK cells and other immune cells that help fight infections.
  3. Gut: chlorophyll
  4. Cardiovascular (LDL, blood pressure)
  5. Skin
  6. Spermidine

Spermidine – (Chlorella)


Tried 30mg spermidine trihydrochloride (3 capsules), and I felt weaker to exercise aggressively and more physically tired. Felt a cognitive sensation, improved mood and cognitive function.

We report that spermidine given in the drinking water did not extend neither the median nor the maximum life span of the middle-aged male Sprague-Dawley rats. 52

*Lactulose (15ml)

  • Ammonia

Gut Health

*Tryptophan (500mg 3X)

Kidneys? According to MR studies it’s not causal

The lactic acid bacteria (i.e., Lactobacillus reuteri in the intestine) eat tryptophan as a source of energy and produce indole-3-aldehyde (IAld), an AhR ligand that activates ILC and releases IL-22, which stimulates the production of antimicrobial peptides, curbs the growth of Candida albicans

Approximately, 95% of tryptophan is metabolized to kynurenine in the liver, 1% to 2% is metabolized to serotonin in the intestine, and 2% to 3% is broken down into indole acetic acid in the liver and gastrointestinal tract [103]


Subjective: Noticed clear motility and gut benefits from Tryptophan, less bloating and negative GI effects.

BCAAs (Leucine & Valine) and Tyrosine/Phenylalanine compete with Tryptophan to get in the brain 54, 55

SULT1A1 appears to be the primary sulfotransferase enzyme involved in the conversion of indoxyl into indoxyl sulfate

AHR activation maintains intestinal barrier integrity. It has also been shown that AHR activation prevents epithelial barrier dysfunction through upregulation of Notch1 signaling and by maintaining the expression of tight junctions. AhR seems to reduce LDL/cholesterol via SREBP1, CAR & FXR, but more research is needed. LDLs can lead to AhR activation in liver-derived cell lines; this observation would be consistent with a feedback regulation that attenuates cholesterol biosynthesis. 56

Colonic 5-HT levels were found to be decreased in constipation IBS.

Interestingly, Yano et al. showed that spore-forming bacteria, dominated by Clostridial species, stimulate 5-HT production by enteroendocrine cells (EECs) through the induction of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TpH1), the rate-limiting enzyme in 5-HT production, and this leads to gut motility regulation. Various microbial metabolites were found to support this effect, including butyrate, cholate, deoxycholate, propionate, and tyramine (Yano et al., 2015). 

Bile = cholate, deoxycholate

*TUDCA (250mg 2X)

TUDCA can inhibit the absorption and synthesis of lipids in the small intestine by improving the intestinal microbiota. the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroides in the TUDCA group was increased 3x fold 60

Increases bile acids: Including Deoxycholic acid (DCA)

TUDCA works by stimulating the production and secretion of bile, which can help to improve digestion and remove toxins from the body. (chatGPT)

Subjective: Noticed improvements in gut function after taking it.

Cellular protection: TUDCA has been shown to protect cells against various forms of stress, including oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Pancreatic cells can be susceptible to these types of stress, which can lead to cellular dysfunction and even cell death. TUDCA’s protective effects might help maintain normal pancreatic function and amylase production.

Negative effects:

Bile acids give me a lot of gas, but not TUDCA

*Probiotics (Mixed Species)

*L Reuteri (2.5B X2) – Lactobacillus reuteri (NCIMB 30242)

Morning – resistant to high acid environment



Took 15 capsules of Life Extension in a sleep deprived state, didn’t notice anything good or bad. No GI discomfort.

Took 7 pills of L Reuteri from Swanson once with breakfast and 6 capsules with afternoon shake, experienced no gas at any time in the day, despite the resistant starch hitting and having GI problems before. 

Made it harder to fall asleep at night – this is what was causing the wakefulness at night. Didn’t get tired all night and went to sleep at 4AM.

Had some pain in my wrist that was definitely caused by this – went away the next day. 

My skin had a certain sensation such as when I take large amounts of resistant starch/butyrate or niacin, felt like it had better circulation and was fighting against skin fungus. Could’ve digested the resistant starch earlier.

Took 6 pills of L Reuteri from life extension at around 4PM. No GI discomfort at all the rest of the night. Don’t know if it caused me to stay up bec also took MDMA.

*B Longum (10B) – B longum BB536b (B Infantis is a subspecies)

Morning – resistant to high acid environment

Subjective: Very effective against GI discomfort.

Took 5 capsules of Life Extension B longum BB536 2B each at 3PM when I was having some GI issues, seemed to improve them. Felt a bit weird but that could be from anything. Next day GI issues seemed to be gone. Took 6 capsules with morning shake, then another 7 capsules with afternoon shake. Next day took 7 capsules in the morning and afternoon, no GI issues whatsoever. Very effective against GI discomfort. No sleep problems at night.

Took 7 capsules of Life Extension at 4PM, took another 6 capsules at 7PM. No GI discomfort at night – only a small amount at midnight. Was clear that it took away GI discomfort. However, woke me up early and disturbed my sleep.

Took 1g of B Longum powder by foods for gut in the afternoon, only GI discomfort experienced at night.


  • Increases SERT

*B Coagulans (Spore forming – 2B)

Morning – resistant to high acid environment


Took 6 capsules of Solaray B Coagulans in the morning (11AM) & 6 pills in the afternoon (2PM), didn’t have any GI discomfort. Took NAC in morning stack.

Took 5 pills of Schiff B Coagulans (2PM) and another 4 pills at 7:30PM. Didn’t experience any GI discomfort at night while eating shakes and 2 salads. May have kept me up a bit – not sure since I took a nap. I took an antihistamine and white jelly to go to sleep.

Took 4 pills of Swanson B Coagulans (total 24B) at 7:30PM, didn’t experience GI issues.

*L Plantarum LP299V (10B)

Found in pickles

Subjective Effects:

Thorne – DSM 6595/strains 299: 5 capsules… GI discomfort, stomach discomfort, wakefuleness, cognitive sharpness

Kaged – Took 6 capsules of Kaged L Plantarum TWK10 (60B), 9AM. Had some GI discomfort throughout the day, despite not doing anything different. Experiment again.

Jarrow – LP299V (DSM 9843): 

5 capsules….Hit pretty quickly, started to feel cognitive effects within 10 min. I really like it. Cognitive improvement. Energy. Creativity. Social. Took 5 capsule again at night after dinner to tame IBS.

Took 5 capsules, was a bit sick, no significant GI issues in the daytime, some at night.

Took 4 caps at 12:30PM with afternoon shake. Had a pretty strong cognitive sensation – a bit too strong, felt a bit dazed. No GI Issues at all.

Swanson – Took 5 capsules of swanson in the morning and didn’t have any GI issues for the day

Took 5 capsules of Swanson (10B/pill) in the morning (11:30AM) and 5 caps afternoon (4:30PM), 4 caps 6:30PM and 3 caps at 10PM. Definitely reduced my GI issues since I challenged it a lot, but didn’t get rid of them.


*L Rhamnosus (GG)

Gut microbiota analysis showed the higher abundance of Alistipes, Allobaculum, Desulfovibrio, and Clostridium XlVa in the LGGs group. 74

May be more likely to cause gas (ChatGPT).


No noticeable effect from 5 pills of Swanson

Took 6 pills at 1 oclock, another 6 pills at 3 oclock for a total of 12 pills of Swanson to see how my GI discomfort held up. Didn’t seem to make a significant difference.

Took 6 pills of Swanson at 10AM after GI discomfort the day before from L Plantarum. Didn’t experience any GI discomfort in the day.

Took 6 pills of Swanson (5b/pill) at 11AM 4 pills at 4PM and 3 pills at 7PM. Felt much less of an appetite, also felt like after I take arginine in my my brain. Not sure if it’s related. Had some GI symptoms, but might have lessened it a bit.

*B Lactis HN019 (17B – B Animalis is a parent species)

  • Gut: IBS-C, Motility (shortened gut transit time from 49 to 21 hrs), Flatulence, Constipation, Nausea, GERD, Tregs, Produces: SCFAs, intestinal 5HT, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria, Lactate, Acetate
  • Cardiovascular (LDL – HN019Probio-M8)
  • Glucose (fasting) (GPT)
  • Immunity/Flu: Consuming yogurt fermented with B. animalis (Bl-04, 2×10^9 CFU/100 g) may reduce the incidence of the flu and other respiratory infections [75]. Probiotic mixes with B. animalis (~10^9 CFU/day) may reduce the incidence and severity of the flu, and improve vaccine efficiency [71, 76, 70, 77, 78].
  • Oxytocin
  • Oral health (plaque, gingival bleeding)

At 6PM, I took 4 capsules of Life Extension 17.2B CFU each pill, for a total of 70B CFU. Felt some GI effects, didn’t help but maybe didn’t make worse.

At 4:30PM, I took 4 capsules of Life Extension 17.2B CFU each pill.

*L Acidophilus (La-14 – 3B)

  • Immunity
  • Flu – L. acidophilus (NCFM, 5×10^9 CFU/day), both alone and combined with B. animalis, may reduce the incidence and duration of flu symptoms. It may also reduce the number of missed school days in children [76].
  • Cardiovascular (LDL, TMAO)
  • Gut: Motility (ChatGPT, but can’t verify), Tregs
  • Fasting Glucose (ChatGPT)
  • Opioid and Cannabinoid receptors in gut, Butyrate uptake, Iron availability, Bifidobacteria, acetic, butyric, and propionic acids, and lowered ammonia

May be more likely to cause gas (ChatGPT)

Took 6 pills of acidophilus from Now Foods (3B La-14) for a total of 18B in the morning at 11AM, with my morning stack. No GI discomfort.

Took 6 pills of acidophilus from Now Foods (3B La-14) at 5PM. No significant GI discomfort. Might help a bit.


  • Increases SERT

*Vitamin D (Sun exposure- ±1-2 hr/day) 


*Liver (Vitamin A)


*Glucosamine sulfate (750mg X 2/day)

Morning – 15 hr half life

  1. Longevity (MR) + all cause mortality, animals
  2. CVD +82 (APOB)
  3. Cancer
  4. Skin (Collagen, Hydration, Wrinkles)
  5. Gut83 (bloating)
  6. Respiratory mortality (COVID severity)
  7. Dementia (MR + cohort)
  8. Cognitive function (Reasoning, Reaction time)
  9. Physical function performance (also in mice – synergistic with exercise)
  10. Energy/Mitochondria

GS, when used as a prescription drug (i.e. crystalline glucosamine sulphate) at 1500 mg daily dosage, can positively affect the cartilage structure, reduce pain, improve function and glucose metabolism in people with knee OA, without having a greater incidence of adverse effects than placebo. [84]

Take away from NAC bec it abolishes the longevity effects [85].

Ameliorating mitochondrial ROS formation or impairment of aat-1-expression abolishes GlcN-mediated life span extension in an NRF2/SKN-1-dependent fashion. Unlike other calorie restriction mimetics, such as 2-deoxyglucose, GlcN extends life span of ageing C57BL/6 mice, which show an induction of mitochondrial biogenesis, lowered blood glucose levels, enhanced expression of several murine amino-acid transporters, as well as increased amino-acid catabolism. Taken together, we provide evidence that GlcN extends life span in evolutionary distinct species by mimicking a low-carbohydrate diet. [85]


*Astaxanthin (4mg)

  1. Longevity (male mice), FOXO3
  2. Mitochondria – affecting respiratory complex III (CIII) – biogenesis biogenesis of holo-complex III (and likely supercomplex I+III, as well) 86
  3. Skin (UV Protection)
  4. Cardiovascular (LDL (10%), APOB (8%) , ApoA1) – 2 meta found no effect on lipids +87 – 5mg/dl triglycerides
  5. Cognitive (Processing speed, Mental fatigue)
  6. Inflammation (STAT3) CRP only when high doses for long period
  7. Kidney
  8. Glucose – meta 2.65mg/dL
  9. Tregs
  10. Exercise (mice) – Our results suggested that astaxanthin promoted lipid metabolism rather than glucose utilization during exercise via CPT I activation, which led to improvement of endurance and efficient reduction of adipose tissue with training. 88

No effect on atherosclerosis in kidney transplant patients 89

*Taurine (500mg X3)

  1. Lifespan – taurine increased average lifespan by 12% in female mice and 10% in males…The researchers started with mice about 45 years old in people terms…suppresses senescence, may increase the regenerative capacity of some tissues by increasing the number of resident stem cells. 
  2. CVD90 (LDLsome trials show it decreases, some don’t, bile synthesis, Homocysteine 3g reduced homocysteine by 11%) – associated with lower IHD mortality
  3. Kidneys
  4. Mitochondria
  5. Gut – decreased gut transit time in mice
  6. Muscle damage (Atrogin1-, MuRF1-) muscle endurance and strength in mice
  7. Oxytocin, Tregs
  8. Mood (GABA)
  9. Immunity
  10. Liver – facilitates elimination of cholesterol and bile…Taurine also reduced the serum concentrations of liver damage markers AST and alanine transaminase (ALT) by ~36 and 20%, respectively [91] – monkeys
  11. Eyes
  12. Antioxidant – DNA 8OH-dG, lipid peroxide, and protein carbonyl concentrations—were decreased by ~36, 11, and 20%, respectively, in the sera of taurine-supplemented monkeys [91] – monkeys
  13. Glucose – Taurine treatment reduced fasting blood glucose concentrations by 19% [91] – monkeys
  14. Bone density – monkeys

In people, taurine levels in 60-year-old individuals were only about one-third of those found in 5-year-olds.


*Royal Jelly (500mg 3:1 concentration)



Made me feel more awake and alert after slight sleep deprivation.

*Chlorogenic Acid (250mg)

Morning – short half life (0.3-1.9h)

What I notice:

8 tablets (4g), empty stomach:

  • Delayed, but long lasting effects. Took 1.5 hrs to start, continued for 4+ hrs. Should take in morning with breakfast.
  • Improved cognition (subtle)
  • Improved mood (subtle)
  • Energy (subtle)
  • Blood thinning –  inhibits platelet activation by preventing their secretion and aggregation in a dose-dependent manner
  • Made fasting easier

*Rapamycin (3mg/every other week) 



  • Sweating?
  • Working memory deficit?

In Peter Attia’s podcast interview with Joan Mannick and Nir Barzelai he mentioned his dosing protocol and the rationale behind it: Joan’s paper suggested 5 mg once a week was a pretty good place to start. Current protocol is—on for 8 weeks, off for 5 weeks

Mikhail Blagosklonny…Dose of Rapamycin: 20mg in a single dose, once every two weeks

Dr. Green’s dosing has changed over time. Now says he’s taking 20mg 15 every other week and that one should wait 5 rapamycin half lives between doses. The rapamycin half-life seems to be around 62 hours +/- 16 hours, in transplant patients 4, and around 82 hours +/– 12 hours, in healthy younger patients 13.

Immunity/Antimicrobials/Infection prevention

*Glycine/Collagen (3.5g X3)

Morning, Afternoon & Evening – (half life 15m-4h)

  1. Antiviral (flu, common cold – doesn’t treat but prevents) (10g/day supplements, 5 g with breakfast and dinner -81% did not get sick vs 7% in control group who didn’t get sick)
  2. CVD (Blood pressure – MR, LDL, HDL, APOB – association, Homocysteine – DR-RCT)
  3. Lifespan (5%) – mice
  4. Muscle – (Atrogin1-, MuRF1-, mTORC1+ 92, 93)
  5. Kidney (eGFR, Uric Acid) – DB-RCT
  6. Mood (GABA)
  7. Wakefulness (from sleep deprivation)
  8. Gut (anti-inflammatory, intestinal permeability, Mucin+)
  9. Cognitive function (NMDA: Memory, Attention, Myelin, Neuroplasticity)
  10. Glucose – MR
  11. Sleep (REM)
  12. Inflammation
  13. Mitochondria, Glutathione, Oxidative stress
  14. Energy (Increases Creatine, Carnitine, Folate metabolism)
  15. Skin (Collagen)
  16. Bone
  17. Cavities
  18. Thyroid (T3)
  19. Liver (GGT) – Glutathione synthesis
  20. Tregs (Collagen, not glycine)
  21. Buffers methylation
  22. Synthesizes: Carnitine, Creatine, Glutathione, Nucleotides, Heme group

*NAC (600mg)

Add 600mg dosage based on Homocysteine, GGT, White Hairs, Sick days or times of need.


  • Flu (54%)/Infection prevention, COVID – Supplementation with NAC (600 mg 2X/day for 6 months) may reduce the frequency, length, and severity of flu-like episodes…..only 25% of virus-infected subjects under NAC treatment developed a symptomatic form, versus 79% in the placebo group [94].
  • Longevity (mice)
  • Cardiovascular (Homocysteine 95 (45% with 1800mg) – homocysteine went down with supplementation – 1200mg, lessens atherosclerosis in mice)
  • Heavy metals, Pesticides
  • Gut (SIBO)
  • Kidneys
  • Lung
  • Liver (GGT)
  • Skin (UV)
  • Muscle fatigue, VO2 max – sedentary men – After 7 days of supplementation, the VO2max  level increased (at day 8) in the supplement group, when compared to the control group…Oxidants increase atrogin 1, cysteine may help reduce
  • Bone
  • Dry eyes (eye drops)
  • Longevity
  • Sperm count and motility
  • OCD, Nail biting, hair pulling
  • Neurodegenerative: Parkinson’s, Dementia
  • Increases HDL (10mg/dl – highest dose – 3600mg) LDL (high cholesterol animals)
  • Clostridium sporogenes can metabolize cysteine and produce hydrogen sulfide. Noticeably, NAC promoted the growth of beneficial bacteria (i.e. Akkermansia, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Allobaculum) and decreased populations of diabetes-related genera, including Desulfovibrio and Blautia. 96

Increases hemoglobin & RBC

The bioavailability of oral NAC in humans is between 4 and 9.1% in one study [20] and between 6 and 10% in another [21]; thus, studies using less than 1200 mg per day may show no significant benefit. The half-life of NAC is 6.25 hours, and clearance is both renal and nonrenal.

1200mg causes a noticeable change, whereas 600mg doesn’t.


  • Gives me GI effects
  • Thins intestinal mucus

*Vitamin C (500mg, Delayed Release) 

Morning (half life of 10-20 days)

*Nutritional Yeast (Beta Glucans) (30g)


  1. Immunity (Flu incidence, duration, and severity) [98, 99, 100, 101]
  2. Cardiovascular (APOB, LDL)
  3. Nutrients: Nucleotides, Beta Glucans, Copper, Magnesium, Potassium
  4. Muscle: Strength and exercise capacity, Myoglobin, Creatine Kinase -rats
  5. Kidney -AKI, diabetes (Urea in rats and people), TMAO (oat)
  6. Tregs

*Riboflavin (25mg)


  1. Anti-infection/Anti-microbial – esp with sunlight but also by itself, Antifungal, Anti-Malassezia, Eyes – prevents decreased vision from eye strain
  2. Skin (immune protection from UV)
  3. CVD (deficiency actually decreases LDL/APOB), Blood pressure, Homocysteine, BP, Methylfolate
  4. Mood (Dopamine)
  5. Cognition
  6. Hair (DHTi)
  7. Longevity (Telomere)
  8. Bone
  9. Gut (Crohn’s, IBS intake less)
  10. Zinc uptake
  11. Energy
  12. Cancer
  13. Muscle: Creatine Kinase/Myopathy/Soreness
  14. Create Methylfolate from Folate
  15. Increases butyrate
  16. Increases oral tolerance
  17. Increases IgA through fatty acid oxidation
  18. Reduces IL17
  19. Telomere length (dietary intake)
  20. White blood cell (WBC) inactivation + UV

Cancer prevention

*Fucoidan (100-200mg)


Took 8 pills of Doctor’s Best on an empty stomach upon awakening. Didn’t feel much, but slightly more awake.

*Reishi 9% Ganoderic Acids (Triterpenoid) – Cycle

  • Cancer
  • Energy
  • Cardiovascular (Cholesterol, Blood pressure)
  • Infection (antibacterial, antiviral, WBC+)
  • Mood (FXR+, AMPA+)
  • Glucose
  • Liver, Muscle, Bone
  • DHTi, Tregs, MARK4

Should take in the daytime? Recheck for energizing effect.


Took 5 capsules from ND. Noticeably improved mood. Had some blood thinning effect, but nothing significant. 

Had excess energy like the other reishi supplement – not sure if from this.

*Black seed oil/10% Thymoquinone (20mg) – Cycle

Evening. 4.5 hr half life

  1. Cancer
  2. CVD (LDL – 14mg/dl, meta, Blood pressure, Atherosclerosis)
  3. Kidney – significant (IR, Diabetes, Fibrosis, AKI, 13 toxins)
  4. Liver
  5. Glucose
  6. Antibacterial, Antifungal
  7. Inflammation – Tregs, TNFi (strong)
  8. Immunity (T Cells+, NK Cells+)
  9. Thyroid (T3 – Hashimotos)
  10. Mood (GABA)
  11. Bone health (mice)
  12. Neuroprotective, Cognitive (AChEi) protects glutamate-induced neurotoxicity


3 caps evening: Blew my nose a fair bit when it set in. Burped a bit. Seems to boost cognition and mood a bit.

4 caps morning: Mood enhancements, ‘flat feeling’

*Broccoli Sprouts/Sulforaphane

  1. Cancer 
  2. Skin (UV Protection)
  3. Cognitive function (Processing speed, Working memory)
  4. CVD (LDL?)
  5. Mood
  6. Kidney
  7. Detox (Alcohol tolerance)
  8. Antimicrobial (antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal)
  9. Inflammation (STAT3)
  10. DHTi
  11. Bladder
  12. HDACi (Class I, which includes HDAC1, -2, -3 and -8)
  13. DNMTi, Klotho*

*Honokiol (25mg)

  1. Mood
  2. Cancer
  3. Antiinflammatory (STAT3, CB1)
  4. Hair growth
  5. Brain function


Higher risk for:

***CVD (meta-RCT) – newer meta shows no effect on CVD


*Boron (3mg)

  1. Hormones: Testosterone, Estrogen, SHBG
  2. Bone
  3. Kidney (Phosphorous, Mortality reduction in kidney disease transplants)
  4. CVD (LDL, Homocysteine, WBC, Hb, Hct)
  5. Inflammation (hsCRP) – 
  6. COVID: Increases O2, WBC & Lymphocytes… decreases Respiratory rate, LDH
  7. Gut
  8. Cognitive (Attention, Short Term Memory)
  9. Mood
  10. Energy/NAD+
  11. Antifungal
  12. Cancer

Boron inhibits lipase? Lipase is a marker of boron deficiency?

*DHEA (25mg) 

Lower levels in blood & genetic predisposition

Pros [104]

  • Bone mineral density (+)
  • Body fat (-) 
  • CRP (-)
  • Muscle mass (+)

Cons [104]

  • COVID (MR)
  • Prostate cancer (+)
  • Androgenic alopecia (+)
  • Hypertension (+)
  • Spinal stenosis (+)
  • Hematocrit (+)
  • HDL (-)

No benefit was observed for T2DB, CVD or cognitive outcomes.

*Tongkat Ali/Eurycoma Longifolia (300mg) 


  1. Testosterone, SHBG
  2. Mood, Socialization? (Dopamine – Cortical and Hippocampal)
  3. Sex drive/Libido
  4. Kidney (decreased BUN in overdose in mice)
  5. Muscle? Decreased Creatine Kinase in overdose in mice


Took 4 pills of Tongkat ali from ND, and it had some mood worsening effects – made me feel more bland. Maybe some cognitive improvements. No libido change. No energy promotion. Foot hurt next to arch. Overall, not a big fan. Prefer now foods.

Muscle/Exercise Performance/Recovery

*Creatine (2g X2/day)


  1. Muscle – no effect on CK when taking statinsPerformance, Force, Muscle mass, Atrogin 1-, MTORC1+, IGF1+ (GPT)
  2. Mitochondria/Energy
  3. Cognitive (Working memory, Intelligence/reasoning
  4. Testosterone/Ergogenic
  5. Mood (Dopamine), Social
  6. VOC detox


*Whey (15g/day)

*Beta alanine (1g X3) + Carnosine (500mg)

25min half life – for beta alanine


The results presented herein demonstrate that l-glutamine supplemented with l-alanine, in both a free or dipeptide form, improve the GLN-GSH axis and promote cytoprotective effects in rats submitted to high-intensity RE training (rats) – 106.

CVD – MR for alanine

Alanine and beta-alanine are two distinct amino acids. Alanine is involved in the metabolism of glucose, while beta-alanine is involved in the synthesis of carnosine. Ingesting beta-alanine does not directly increase levels of alanine in the body because these two molecules are metabolized differently and serve different biological functions.


*TMG/Betaine (1g X 2)

Why I take it:

  • Muscle repair/recovery & Exercise Performance
  • Mood (Dopamine, Serotonin)
  • Cardiovascular (Homocysteine & Methylation, Methionine, HRV)
  • Cognitive (Myelin)
  • Liver health
  • Kidney health (Uric acid, Urea)
  • Glucose


Causally related to Crohn’s

Megadosing experiments: I’ve done around 3 experiments where I’ve taken 10g of this. I notice improvements in mood when taken at this dosage, but not at 1g, which is what I take in my regimen.

The benefits to mood are not as great for me as some of the others, which is why I consider this a tier 2 mood supplement for me.

I’ve also noticed that my HRV goes up with large doses of this supplement.

One negative about TMG is that in studies it can increase LDL and cholesterol levels if given in high doses (>4g/d).

In addition, it may play a causal role in type 2 diabetes [107] and Crohn’s [108].

Interesting tidbit: The mood enhancing effects for me are not as strong as some other supplements in this category. I still take it because of the other health effects it has, especially on lowering homocysteine.

Homocysteine is converted to methionine when methylated, which I have a higher genetic need for. I do well with methionine. However, instead of taking methionine or SAMe, it’s better to convert homocysteine to methionine, which TMG does.

Another reason I take TMG is because I also take NMN, which uses methyl groups and this has a concentration of them, which balances the lost methyl groups from NMN supplementation.

How long I’ve taken it: I’ve tried it a long time ago, but didn’t stick with it. This is a pretty new item to my regimen, only taking it consistently since mid 2022.

What I take: I take this one, mainly because it’s cheap and from a reliable company, but any brand is good.

Dosage: 1g daily

When I take it: Morning, it can interfere with my sleep if taken too late

Regimen stability: Moderately Stable

*HMB (1g X3)


Kidney safe

Only about 5% of leucine is converted to HMB [24], thus a person would need to consume ≥60 g/d of leucine to achieve a daily dose of 3 g of HMB to maximize MPS stimulation [78].


*Ornithine (1g)



Intense stomach Ache after 4.5g, almost 3 hrs later, Started noticing benefits 3 hours later on an empty stomach.

I think it improved wound healing long term.

The ammonia is metabolized by a number of amino acids, such as ornithine, arginine and citrulline, in the urea cycle

*Agmatine (250mg)


Synergies: Cannabis, Lithium, Ketamine, SSRI, Opioids109, Tricylcic, NMDA blocker, Bupropion 110Cannabis induced hypothermia, cannabis for pain


Can potentiate opioid analgesia and prevent tolerance to chronic morphine [111]

Displaces clonidine (a 2 agonist)

Decreases iNOS & nNOS, increases eNOS

Activates mTOR

Blocks nicotinic receptors



Took 1.5g of Agmatine (6 pills) from Nootropics Depot at 9AM. Had 6.5 hrs sleep. At 10:30, I felt very relaxed and in a good mood, a bit high even. Some nootropic effects. Not a headache, but close to it.

*Glutamine (1.5g 2X)

  1. Muscle (Creatine Kinase, Myoglobin), Recovery/Wound Healing
  2. Gut (IBS – in those with a gut infection, leaky gut, constipation, Mucin+)
  3. Immunity [COVID113]
  4. Glucose (Fasting glucose – meta)
  5. Cancer – dietary intake, melanoma, pancreatic, and colorectal cancer, reside in a glutamine-deprived microenvironment
  6. Cognitive (Alzheimer’s – MR)
  7. Inflammation (CRP, TNF, IL6, Th1/Th17)
  8. Energy
  9. Mood (protective effect on depression – MR)
  10. Helpful for kidney? (increases eGFR when in a cocktail of 6 aminoacids)
  11. Protects against exercise induced ammonia increase 114
  12. Tregs, IgA, Glutathione, Tph1
  13. Reduces Appetite, GLP1+

Moreover, supplementation of glutamine in the diet significantly increased the concentration of glutamine in tumours and serum (Fig. 1d). Higher serum levels cause higher birth weight babies – MR 115.


*Ca Alpha Ketoglutarate (500mg X2)

Morning & Evening


Increases Th1

*Schisandra – (250mg, 3% Schisandrins – Lignans) – Cycle

Took 3 caps of ND Schisandra (250mg/cap, 3% Schisandrins). I felt it improved cognition – attention, and also wakefulness, Had 5.5 hrs of sleep and wasn’t tired. Also helped strength & stamina.

*Propolis (300mg – 5:1)


Took 3 caps of 300mg now foods 5X extraction. I think it gave me a lot of energy and stamina. Helped with wound healing.

*Colostrum – after intense exercise only

Blood Glucose

*Cinnamon (1.5g X2)


*Panax ginseng (250mg) – Cycle

  1. Energy
  2. Libido
  3. Immune (Flu, WBC+)
  4. Mood
  5. Cognitive (Working Memory, Processing Speed)
  6. Cardiovascular (LDL, HRV?)
  7. Hair growth– DHT(-)
  8. Physical performance, Muscle: Creatine Kinase (significant)
  9. Glucose
  10. Tregs (Rd), AhR, Klotho (Rg1), GSKbi (Neural Stem Cell growth)

Rb1, Rg1, Rg3, Rd and Re are the most common and commonly researched ginsenosides.

Rg1 and Re specifically are in much higher concentrations in the leaves than the roots.

Ginseng leaf seems the best.



*Kelp/Iodine (500mg/270mcg iodine)


  1. Thyroid
  2. Kidney
  3. Glucose
  4. Cancer
  5. Gut
  6. Cognitive (Reaction Time, Attention) – noticed
  7. Mood [association + 119]
  8. Sleep (Phlorotannin – reduces WASO)
  9. CVD (LDL slightly)

*Forskolin (50mg)


  1. Thyroid (T4, T3)
  2. Gut (Motility)
  3. Kidney (aldose reductase, AGEs)
  4. Blood pressure and blood flow
  5. Skin
  6. Weight
  7. Creativity [Tyrosine Hydroxylase/Dopamine Striatum, DRD2+ and sensitization, NMDA+, AMPA+, Oxytocin, GABA desensitization, which acts like a GABA antagonist 120]
  8. Suppresses Th17



Bone Health

*Calcium (as Carbonate/Citrate/Malate) (250mg)

  1. Bone
  2. Mitochondria
  3. Blood pressure
  4. Longevity
  5. Hormones: TestosteroneSHBG
  6. Cardiovascular (LDL121, LP(a)) – less than 700mg and 500mg might not increase risk
  7. Kidney (Phosphorous)
  8. Mood – Serotonin (Tryptophan Hydroxylase)
  9. Gray hair
  10. Thyroid (FT3)
  11. Urine pH
  12. Liver
  13. More likely deficient in IBS
  14. Alzheimer’s – MR
  15. Sleep (Maintenance, Quality)

In very large doses, it can decrease dopamine in Striatum


*Vitamin K2 (120mcg – MK7)

  1. CVD
  2. Bones
  3. Teeth 
  4. Gums
  5. Th17

Sleep – if needed

*Poria – 500-1500mg


  • Immunity
  • Mood
  • Gut
  • Respiratory
  • Cognitive

Took 3 capsules (1.5g) in the after noon at about 4PM, and felt a significant effect at 6PM. Mood and cognitive boosting effect. Felt very tired – fatigue lasted till the next day – got 10.5 hrs of sleep that night. May have been a bit too strong. May be good right before sleep. Index finger hurt where there was an injury.

Only take at night if I want to go to sleep earlier or on the plane.

Stacks: Plane, Sick, Sleep earlier

*Melatonin – 300mcg-3mg


*Meclizine (Antihistamine) – 25mg


*Caffeine (Yerba Mate or Green Tea)


  • Increases Osteoarthritis (MR)
  • Reduces tryptophan hydroxylase – caffeine has the capability to reduce brain serotonin synthesis by inhibiting tryptophan hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme for central serotonin biosynthesis & and/or to reduce brain serotonin/dopamine ratio by blocking adenosine α1 and α2 receptors within the CNS [122]

*Paraxanthine (100mg)

*Bromantane (10mg)


Supplements in Lower Quantities As a Hedge

*Fisetin  (10mg)

No relevant clinical trials

Not impressed by mega dosing experiment

Not aware of any biomarker it will improve

Not unique in biochemical pathways that are of interest to me

Not enough benefits in animal studies for my goals

Has some negative effects

*Pterostilbene (10mg)

  • CVD (TMAO)
  • Kidney
  • Tregs

*Quercetin (10mg)

Not impressed by mega dosing experiment

Not aware of any biomarker it will improve

Not unique in biochemical pathways that are of interest to me

Not enough benefits in animal studies for my goals

*Luteolin (10mg)

No relevant clinical trials

Not impressed by mega dosing experiment

Not aware of any biomarker it will improve

Not unique in biochemical pathways that are of interest to me

Not enough benefits in animal studies for my goals

*Chrysin (10mg)

Kidneys, StAR conversion) – may harm thyroid function in large doses

*Resveratrol (10mg)

Not impressed by mega dosing experiment

Not aware of any biomarker it will improve

Not unique in biochemical pathways that are of interest to me



*Soy Isoflavones (10mg genistein, 10mg Daidzen) – don’t rebuy

Participants in the highest category of dietary soy isoflavones intake had a 10% lower risk of all-cause mortality compared with those in the lowest category. 123


  • High urinary genistein was associated with increased risk of all cause mortality [124]
  • Higher levels are associated with cognitive impairment [125]

Taste enhancement



  • Ergogenic w/ glycerol



*LSD (75mcg) – once a week

The elimination half-life values of LSD is ~4 h (2.5 h for psilocybin).

Psilocybin increased blood pressure more than LSD, whereas LSD increased heart rate more than psilocybin. 200mcg is not significantly better in most ways than 100mcg, but anxiety is and impaired cognition are significantly more in 200mcg [129].

Maximal ratings of > 50% (better than 5/10) good drug effects were reached in (R):

    • 37% = 25 mcg
    • 91% = 50 mcg
    • 96% = 100mcg
    • 91% = 200mcg

Maximal ratings of > 50% (worse than 5/10) bad drug effects were reached in (R)

    • 0% = 25mcg 
    • 9% = 50mcg 
    • 27% = 100mcg 
    • 31% = 200mcg

Mean ratings of Anxious Ego-Dissolution [131]:

    • 3.4% = 25mcg
    • 13% = 50mcg 
    • 20% = 100mcg
    • 22% = 200mcg

Uniqueness: Most stimulating from psychedelics, long lasting effects (12 hrs)

Ideal dose: 90 mcg (3mcg/drop, 35 drops)…Prep: 15 drops (125mcg/drop) in 1 oz fluid.

Goes well with Tryptophan – case study that 5HTP gets rid of psychosis

Negatives of acute exposure:

*Ketamine – alcohol replacement (once a week?)

Ideal dose: 30mg/time (6 spritz’s from silver bottle – 3 in each nose). Onset 5-10 min.

Prep: 3g into 2 fluid oz of silver + oxytocin. 0.1ML/spray. 59ML in the bottle. 590 sprays/ 2oz bottle of silver. 5mg/spray.

Goes well with Lithium, Rapamycin, Magnesium, Agmatine

Hair Growth (topical)

I cycle these topically.


  • Potassium channel opener
  • Nitric oxide
  • Adenosine
  • PGE2, Leukotriene B4 stimulation
  • VEGF, HGF, IGF-1
  • 5α reductase inhibition

*Rosemary Essential Oil

1,8-cineol (38.5%), camphor (17.1%), α-pinene (12.3%), limonene (6.23%), camphene (6.00%) and linalool (5.70%)

*Lavender Essential Oil

linalool, linalyl acetate, 1,8-cineole, β-ocimene, terpinen-4-ol, and camphor

*Peppermint Essential Oil

Menthol (40.7%) and menthone (23.4%). Further components were (+/-)-menthyl acetate, 1,8-cineole, limonene, beta-pinene and beta-caryophyllene.

Mechanisms That I Care About

  • AhR+
  • Tph1+, Tph2+, IPA+, Tryptamine+
  • Tregs+
  • Cannabinoids+
  • Testosterone+
  • Estradiol+
  • Oxytocin+
  • Serotonin+
  • 5HT1A+
  • 5HT2A+
  • Dopamine+, Striatal dopamine+, dopamine transporter inhibition
  • Non HDL-C, LDL-C & APOB inhibition
  • LP(a) inhibition
  • NAD+
  • mTOR inhibition
  • PPARg+, PPARa+, PPARd+ 
  • SIRT1+
  • AMPK+
  • NRF2+
  • HDAC inhibition
  • PDE inhbition
  • NMDA+
  • GABA-
  • DHT inhibition
  • NAA+
  • Klotho+
  • GSK3b inhibition
  • Flu, Covid
  • Organs: Gut, Heart, Kidney, Skin, Liver, Pancreas
  • Sigma receptor+
  • GGT decrease
  • Ammonia decrease
  • Homocysteine decrease
  • Amylase decrease
  • ALT decrease

Most Promising to Add to Regimen

Berberine (500mg) 


No change in creatine kinase


  • Promote muscle atrophy – Berberine impairs muscle metabolism by 1) impairing mitochonidrial function stimulating the expression of atrogin-1, which not only stimulated protein degradation but also suppressed protein synthesis, causing muscle atrophy.  2) It also impaired insulin/IGF-1 signaling, reducing PI3K and p-Akt activities. 3) Increased AMPK, which inhibits the activity of the mTOR complex I (TORC1) 132…Also inhibits hmg coa reductase 133.
  • Berberine could inhibit mitochondrial respiration by targeting complex I [134], which led to leakage of electrons that cause a higher rate of reactive oxygen production in the mitochondria [135]. 

S Boulardii (5B) – out


Took 6 delayed release pills in the morning at around 10:30AM, no GI discomfort in the day.

Took 6 delayed release pills at around 6PM. Had some GI discomfort before I took it, but seemed to get better for a bit then got worse at around 11PM. Unclear if it’s better, but definitely not worse. Not as good as L Reuteri/B Longum/B coagulans. Kept me up at night – I think.

Beta Caryophyllene/Rephyll (250mg)

Copaiba is around 25% beta caryophyllene. Oregano oil has 10%.


5 pills of Rephyll in the morning: Went to the bathroom quickly. Slight mood benefits. Felt a bit colder in extremities. Very slightly nauseous.

Indole 3 Carbinol (I3C)/DIIM – dependent on Estradiol levels

DIIM is a metabolite of I3C


  • Inhibits Estrogens
  • I3C: Random pains in center of head, left thumb, right foot next to calf (Tibialis anterior)
  • Induces CYPs

Estradiol helps with:


  • Gut
  • Mood – unique mode it seems
  • Pain (CB1+ & CB2+, inhibits GPR55, PPARy)
  • LDL (ChatGPT – HMG-CoAi, LDLR+)
  • Antifungal
  • Bone

Was tired – made me less tired. Somewhat wakefulness promoting. Slight pain next to eyes.

Improved mood, but not in a GABA way. Lessened pain from an injury.

Alpinia Galanga (300mg)

  • Stimulant comparable to caffeine
  • Alertness/Focus, memory – Improves Attention Network Function (ANF) – reaction time plus flanker test, which is the ability of the brain to allocate processing resources to a specific task.
  • Dopamine reuptake inhibitor, Locomotor activity, AChEi, MAOA, MAOB
  • Libido/Lower standards
  • Cough/illness
  • Gut (antiflatulent)
  • Helps fasting
  • Potent antifungal, Hypolipidemic


Took 600mg (2 caps). Felt it 1 hr later. Feels like a stimulant. Boosts libido. Extremities were cooler. Kidneys may have been working harder. Has a stable and smooth effect over time. Very slight ear ringing for 2 seconds. Gets better over time.

Ginger family – see list of benefits.


  • Tannins
  • Phenol
  • Glycosides
  • Monoterpenes 
  • Gallic acid 
  • Galangoisoflavonoin, galangin, alpinin, zerumbone and kampferide
  • 1,8-cineole, α-fenchyl acetate, camphor, methyl cinnamate, and guaiol.


Galangal exhibited different pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, carminative, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, and emmenagogue and traditionally has been used for the treatment of various diseases such as kidney disorders, diabetes, cough, tuberculosis, bronchitis, rheumatism, asthma, and heart diseases.



  • Cognitive: Memory (animals)
  • Mood


  • Cognitive boost
  • Mood boost
  • Boosts focus
  • Boosts brain blood flow
  • Blood thinning effect
  • Goes well with cold for cognitive function

Mangiferin (Zynamite Mango Extract)

Mechanisms: COMTi, AChEi, blood flow

Took 3 pills from Life Extension at 1PM with afternoon shake, noticed cognitive function improvement. Hit quickly – 15 min later. More focus, wakefulness, working memory, alertness, information processing. Didn’t have great sleep the night before and was sluggish, but this took away that tiredness. Once I had a burp of peppermint, and stomach started hurting slightly – seemingly from peppermint. Didn’t notice any significant blood thinning effect.

Tyrosol (+Salidroside)


Doesn’t Make the Cut Yet

Thymus Glandular (250mg)

Boswellia – Don’t rebuy

N Acetyl Glucosamine/NAG (500mg) – don’t rebuy

Together, while dietary GlcNAc supplementation did not extend survival in mice, it positively affected memory and is generally well tolerated. [138]

Potential negatives:

Calcium D Glucarate (500mg X2) – check effects on LDL

Glucarate is a natural inhibitor of an enzyme called beta-glucuronidase, which is involved in the metabolism and elimination of various substances, including cholesterol. By inhibiting this enzyme, glucarate helps to increase the excretion of cholesterol and other toxins from the body. Additionally, glucarate has been shown to increase the activity of another enzyme called UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, which is involved in the detoxification of various substances, including cholesterol.

Pantethine (450mg) – don’t rebuy


Ursolic Acid (50mg) – don’t rebuy


Piperine for absorption


May promote plaque formation in the blood vessels, may make blood platelets become stickier and more likely to form clumps [48, 49].

Hyaluronic acid (100mg) – don’t rebuy

  • Skin
  • Eyes
  • Bone


Low vs high weight HA has different effects. Companies sell low weight, our body produces high weight.

Pomegranate – don’t rebuy

POMx and POM juice increased the mean counts of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus and significantly inhibited the growth of B. fragilis group, clostridia, and Enterobacteriaceae in a dose-response manner. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus utilized ellagic acid and glycosyl ellagic acid but little or no punicalin was utilized. Neither POMx nor POM juice was converted to urolithins by the test bacteria or the in vitro stool cultures. 

Following PJ intake ~40% of the subjects converted significantly the precursor compounds into UA. UA producers were distinguished by a significantly higher gut microbiome diversity and ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroides. Direct supplementation with UA significantly increased plasma levels and provided a >6-fold exposure to UA vs. PJ (p < 0.0001).

Maca (200mg, 5% macamide)

Take in the day – allegedly stimulating, but made me tired…


Subjective: relaxed, but social, motivated. Makes me tired. Slight nausea for the first 15 minutes. Random pains.



  • Testosterone, Estrogenic effects
  • Blood glucose (increases insulin)
  • Gut (digestion)
  • Mood (anxiety)
  • Cognitive function
  • Cardiovascular (LDL, Circulation)
  • Energy [enhance endurance capacity and the utilization of fatty acids as an energy source in male mice – 141] – grip strength
  • General tonic


Took 4 pills of fenugreek 50% fenusides from Swanson (300mg*4 = 1200mg).

Felt improvements in mood, cognitive function, and felt like I could be more social. Seems to have benefited circulation. Felt estrogenic effects. Had more endurance on my run. Had some gas, bloating. Felt some slight sensations in my ball area. Working memory may have slightly worsened, and typing accuracy got worse. Attention seems better and worse – not sure. Made me a bit tired after 3-4 hours.


Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, ellagic acid and rutin 

Experience from 6 pills non standardized sage in the morning:

  • Mood/Relaxation, a bit tiredness from sleep deprivation
  • Alertness/Acetylcholine increase
  • Glucose (insulin sensitivity)
  • LDL
  • Cancer

Nootropic depot sage:

Some cognitive enhancement


High doses cause kidney injury


Took 3 pills on an empty stomach (250mg each) of ND Baicalin (50% – 125mg), Baicalein (20% – 50mg) and Apigenin (15% – 42.5mg) after waking up in a sleep deprived state. 

Caused me to go back to sleep at 12PM. Made me very tired. Definitely something to take at night time.

Zembrin (25mg) (Eve)


Took 3 pills in the morning, in a sleep deprived state. Became sleepy from it for 2-3 hours, but improved cognition. Blood flow changes occured and hand tingling when by my bed on the computer.

Ginkgo – check prothrombin time




  • Energy, motivation, socialization
  • DHT, MAOi

Took it in the morning. Felt a boost of confidence and motivation, likely from the DHT.

Stacks: Social


What I noticed:

  • Slight opioid effect
  • Mood boost, relaxed
  • Libido boost
  • Potential cognitive boost


  • Testosterone

Took 2 capsules, felt a cognitive boost, not clear exactly what.

CBD (Eve)


  • Thins blood too much
  • CBD can inhibit dopamine release by inhibiting the TRPV1 receptor in the brain as well as increasing adenosine
  • Immunosuppressive


Subjective: 3 caps/300mg at night

  • Slight headache for a few seconds.
  • Relaxed me strongly. 
  • Mood changes
  • Cause hypolocomotion – made it more difficult to walk/think/talk. 
  • Sensation in extremities: hands and feet – increased blood flow? 
  • Lowers sex drive. 
  • Makes me thirsty.
  • Woke up feeling tired with the effects still present next day.
  • Long lasting effects – woke up with it.
  • Improved REM sleep & HRV

White Jelly Mushroom


  • Immunity
  • Skin
  • Oxidative stress
  • SIRT1

Stacks: Daily, Sick, Alcohol, Rapamycin

Took 3 capsules at night, and slept very well, despite drinking alcohol and eating late. 1.5 hrs REM sleep, 2:35 Deep sleep, 8:31 of total sleep.

Took 3 capsules first thing in the morning and felt a noticeable cognitive and immune boost. Felt some blood thinning.

Saffron (88.5mg) 

  • Mood (Serotonin, BDNF, CREB, GABAA Receptor activation, Acetylcholine, NMDA antagonism, Beta2 adrenergic activation, light inhibition of opioid receptors)
  • Cardiovascular (LDL – 6mg, Blood pressure)
  • Cognitive function (Reaction time)
  • Vision/Eye health
  • Libido
  • Immunity (increases WBCs)
  • Physical performance
  • Tregs (seems minor)

Oregano oil

  1. Gut (SIBO)
  2. Antifungal 
  3. Cardiovascular (LDL)

About the Author

Joe Cohen, BS

Joe Cohen, BS

Joe Cohen flipped the script on conventional and alternative medicine…and it worked. Growing up, he suffered from inflammation, brain fog, fatigue, digestive problems, insomnia, anxiety, and other issues that were poorly understood in traditional healthcare. Frustrated by the lack of good information and tools, Joe decided to embark on a learning journey to decode his DNA and track his biomarkers in search of better health. Through this personalized approach, he discovered his genetic weaknesses and was able to optimize his health 10X better than he ever thought was possible. Based on his own health success, he went on to found SelfDecode, the world’s first direct-to-consumer DNA analyzer & precision health tool that utilizes AI-driven polygenic risk scoring to produce accurate insights and health recommendations. Today, SelfDecode has helped over 100,000 people understand how to get healthier using their DNA and labs.
Joe is a thriving entrepreneur, with a mission of empowering people to take advantage of the precision health revolution and uncover insights from their DNA and biomarkers so that we can all feel great all of the time.


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